The Greco-Persian Wars

        The Greeks and the Persians were growing much tension between their societies. The Greeks were getting closer towards the Asia Minor. This tension soon led to war, but afterwards it changed Greece as a whole. The society of Greece changed from independent city-states to a more centralized society because of the Greco-Persian Wars.

        The war was caused by the tension around the city of Iona which the Greeks established. Iona was established around the Aegean Sea coastline. The reason why the Greeks made Iona was due to the fact that they were getting too crowded in their normal territory. They moved along the coastline, settling at Iona. This was a city-state, as was all of the other Greek societies. Soon, the nearby Persians came into Iona and forced the Greeks to pay taxes there. Later, the Greeks revolted. This was the start of the 20 year-long war.

        When war broke out, the Persian King Darius I wanted to conquer all of Greece. He attacked them directly at Athens. They fought at the Marathon (a beach). The Athenians won.  In 480 B.C Persians were led by Xerces to defeat the Spartans at the Battle of Thermopylae. They killed all of the Greeks at Thermopylae and burnt Athens down. The Battle of Artemisium was also another battle at sea which the Persians won once again. This was due to the Greeks finding out about their defeat at Thermopylae. The victories shifted at the Battle of Salamis (480 B.C). The Greeks defeated a large Persian naval force. The final attempt of Persia capturing Greece came at the Battle of Plataea. This was a land war, which the Greeks won. There was also a naval war that the Greeks won. Persia never attacked Greece again.

        With the Greeks fighting together, they recognized their cultural similarities towards one another. They then identified them as Greeks. They won due to the naval victories and strategic land battles. They also, unlike the Persians, had one language that helped with communicating towards one another. The Greeks also came together at a time of need to defeat a threat. 

        The Greek-Persian Wars were a breakthrough for Greece, and the Persians were not very affected upon this. Wars, most often, cause unity between the civilizations fighting. This war is a good example of that. Now until the end, the Greeks would play a large role in the world with their ideas, sciences, etc. 

Essay By: Reema N